New Book!

 

 

 Leroy S. Johnson 

Six years after J. Leslie Broadbent’s death, John Y. Barlow proposed the names of Leroy S. (“Roy”) Johnson and Marion Hammon to become High Priest Apostles.  Fellow Council member Louis Kelsch asked John if he had followed the procedure outlined by Lorin for calling new Council members.  Barlow conceded that such strict instructions had not been followed, but that he nonetheless “felt inspired” to call the two men.  John also discussed the issue with Joseph Musser who related the incident to Morris Kunz: 

[Joseph Musser] said, “I’ll tell you what happened.  John Y. came up to my home.  I was living on the avenues.  I hadn’t seen John for quite some time, and when he came into the house he said, ‘Joseph, I feel that a Roy Johnson and Marion Hammon should be put into the council.’“ [Musser] says, John, have you had a revelation to that effect?”   [Barlow] said, “no, but I feel.”  Joseph said, “I told you John, ‘You know as well as I do what the order is, what we have been taught...  I suppose I got a little rough with John Y. at that time, and he stormed out of the house and left, went back to Short Creek.  Two weeks later I looked out the window and John Y. was coming up to my house again.  When he came in, and after he got in for a little while he said, ‘Well, Joseph, I still feel that Roy Johnson and Marion Hammon should be put into the council.’  I said to John Y. again, ‘John have you had a revelation to that effect?’  “Well, no,’ he said, ‘ I haven’t, but I feel that they should be put in... in the meantime.’“

[Musser] said, “I suppose I had mellowed a little bit, and so I told John Y., ‘John, you being the senior member of this council, if you wan to put Roy Johnson and Marion Hammon into the council, I will not oppose it providing that you take all the responsibility.’“[1]

Acting upon Barlow’s inspiration, the names of Johnson and Hammon were presented to the remaining four members of the Council of Friends.  Reportedly both Louis A. Kelsch and Legrand Woolley abstained from voting, but without formal objection, the men were ordained.  Lewis Kelsch told Arnold Boss in 1946 that “he had never been able to welcome any of the new ones asked into the council since Lorin’s death.  I have not been able to fellowship them; and when John Y. said, he would take all the responsibility for what had been done in calling them, I let it rest there.”[2]

Born 12 June 1888, Leroy Johnson, spent many of his childhood years in Big Horn County, Wyoming among family and friends, some of whom questioned the validity of the 1890 Manifesto.[3]  He became acquainted with fundamentalist ideas in 1928 after his brother Price introduced him to John Woolley in Centerville, Utah.[4]  Soon thereafter he quietly entered plural marriage,[5] and continued his membership in the LDS Church.  He listened to Church President Heber J. Grant speak in Kanab, Utah at a Zion Stake Conference on 14 September 1931.  Despite President Grant’s harsh criticism of post-1904 polygamy, Leroy seemed to find assurance that the principle was right and should be perpetuated: “Every once in a while he [President Grant] dropped a word to let me know that the true principles of the gospel were always discarded by the majority of the people.”[6]  In 1935 however, Leroy was confronted by Claude Hirschi, his stake president regarding his support of plural marriage.  Refusing to sign the “loyalty oath,” Johnson was soon excommunicated.

LeRoy Johnson recalled the circumstances of his calling to the Council of Friends: “When President Barlow approached me in the field one morning and told me that the Lord had told him to call me into the Council of the Priesthood, I looked at him and said, ‘It can’t be, John, because there are many men in this order of things that are better prepared than I am.’  He said, ‘Go to the house, open the book, and read.’ So I went and read.  I happened to be hauling hay.  I stuck my fork into a pile of hay and asked the boys to go on loading until I came back.  I read what the Lord had to say about it. At that  time I was convinced that the words of John Y. Barlow were true.”[7]   He was ordained by Barlow at the Woolsey Ranch on 21 May 1941.[8]

 

                              

Teachings of Leroy Johnson 

Many of Leroy Johnson’s sermons are recorded in the seven volume, The L. S. Johnson Sermons.  Throughout the thousands of pages, Johnson touched upon numerous themes and doctrines. 

                                          One Mighty and Strong 

One common topic is the visitation of the “one mighty and strong.”  Johnson instructed:  “It is our greatest desire to prepare a people to be used by the ‘one mighty and strong’ when he comes to set the House of God in order.  The House of God means all.  It doesn’t mean only the Church, it means the Priesthood, also.  We are laboring under a partial administration.  The whole House of God cannot roll on without the organization of the Church.  So we have got to have the setting-in-order system before this thing can be consummated as the Lord would like to have it.”[9]  “When the ‘one mighty and strong’ comes to set in order the House of God, he has to have men and women he can depend upon.  That is what we are trying to teach.”[10]  “If you have two wives, and you are a monogamist at heart, I am afraid the ‘one mighty and strong’ will not be able to use you.”[11]  Nevertheless, he cautioned his listeners:  “If the ‘one mighty and strong’ were to come today and stand here in this pulpit and talk to you, you wouldn’t believe him; you wouldn’t know him.  You would call him an imposter.”[12] 

                                                Missionary Work

Although Leroy Johnson never sent out missionaries to “preach the gospel to every creature” (Mark 16:15), he repeatedly taught:  “It is still the responsibility of this Priesthood to preach nothing but preparation and repentance to this generation.”[13]  “The time is here for [God] to gather together scattered Israel.  The only way He can gather scattered Israel is to have a people that He can work with to gather them around.  That is the purpose of this Priesthood Council today.”[14]

When asked, “Why don’t you go up on the temple corner and preach repentance to the people and teach the Gospel of Jesus Christ as you understand it?”  Johnson responded: “I have not been told of the Lord to go up there on main street and teach repentance to the Latter-day Saints.  This people [the LDS Church] are in the same condition that the people were two hundred years after Christ visited this continent.  They have willingly rejected the Gospel of Jesus Christ, whether they know it or not; for the Lord has said: ‘He that is guilty of breaking one of these commandments is guilty of the whole.’“[15]  “The Lord has closed our mouths against going among the Latter-day Saints and trying to get them to accept the fullness of the Gospel and apply it to their lives.  Why?  Because they have willingly rejected those principles.”[16]

Regarding other forms of missionary work, Johnson explained: “Since I’ve been acquainted with the Priesthood work, I’ve been criticized pretty heavy because I don’t get out and proselyte among my friends and try to persuade them to my way of thinking, not because I’m afraid of the opposition that might come, but because I realize the sacredness of the principles of salvation to the extent that I don’t want to mar the Spirit of God by causing any friction, or in other words, causing an argument.”[17]  “If the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints would call every missionary in from the nations of the earth and put them to work among their own people and teach them the fulness of the everlasting gospel, they would be doing a greater work than they are doing today...  Let us look to our own selves.  If we labor from now on and save no one but our own souls, how great will our joy be in the Kingdom of God.”[18]   Nevertheless, on other occasions Johnson seemed to teach that missionary work of the LDS Church was valid.[19] 

                                                   Temple Work

Leroy Johnson explained why Colorado City fundamentalists do not perform ordinance work for the dead:  “The Lord has deprived us of the privilege of the House of God.  Why?  Because He can’t trust us.  We won’t get another privilege to have our endowments and the other blessings of the House of God unless we repent.”[20]  He further explained: “Had the people kept the commandments of God, the temple work being done today would be effective, because it would have been done under the direction of the Priesthood.”[21]  “The Priesthood had access to the temples until the Manifesto of 1890 was signed, and then the Priesthood was ostracized from the Church B cut off.  The Church had the temples in their control, and the Lord didn’t see fit to build another temple and to have it desecrated.”[22]

Concerning ordinance work for the living, Johnson instructed: “Every married man and every married woman that is sealed by the Priesthood for time and all eternity have enough covenants and endowments to take them to the highest degree of glory in the Celestial Kingdom if they will do what the Lord has asked them to do B keep themselves clean every whit and pray night and day for deliverance from the sins of this world.”[23]  “You had read to you today the great covenant and endowment (The Marriage Covenant).  It has been told to us that we could not get into the presence of our Father without further endowments, but it is only, simply because we didn’t pay enough attention to the endowment that was given to us.  But this is all we need to exalt us into the presence of our Father, if we will keep it.”[24] 

                                      Church and Kingdom of God

On one occasion Johnson asked: “What is the kingdom?”  Then he answered: “The Kingdom of God comprises the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Priesthood, the Church of the Firstborn with all its branches.”[25]  He also taught:  “There’s no such thing as the Church of Jesus outside of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints as we understand it today.  That’s the only church that holds, in the end, any eternal salvation for the children of men.”[26]  “We’re Latter-day Saints.  We belong to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints”[27] or the “Fundamentalist division of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.”[28] 

Nevertheless, Leroy Johnson instructed:  “The Lord is very angry with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints for the way it has acted and operated through out the last hundred years or more.”[29]  He explained: “It is true we have been ostracized from the Church, but have we been cut off from the tree? The tree is the Priesthood. What right did the branch have to cut the Priesthood off?  They might break themselves off the Priesthood tree B and that is what happened.”  He further clarified: “[The] spirit of decay had already set in, and it kept growing, growing, growing in the branch [the LDS Church], until 1890, it fell.  We are referred to as apostates.  What did we apostatize from?  From the rotten branch?  Or did we cling to the main body of the tree?”[30]  “The Latter-day Saints... have bartered away the rights of the Holy Priesthood, and today they are laboring under a great delusion.”[31]  In 1890 the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints “tried to make peace with the enemy by signing away their right to the Holy Priesthood,”[32] “they sold their birthright,”[33] and “the Priesthood withdrew.”[34]  If the Church were not out of order, it would “be operating under the priesthood” today.[35]

In 1977 Johnson explained that the only fruits of missionary labors in existence from Joseph Smith’s day were Johnson’s fundamentalist followers: “You know, it has been about a hundred and fifty years now, the Lord has been trying to prepare a people and gather out from among the Gentile nations the blood of Ephraim.  Those who have gathered around the Priesthood at the present time represent about all the congregation that is faithful at this time.”[36] 

The “One Man” Doctrine 

As a general pattern in Colorado City, each individual Priesthood Council member had the power to decide who would marry whom without discussing the arrangements with other Council members.  Individuals who desired new wives could obtain the approval and cooperation of any member of the Priesthood Council to seal their marriages.  In time, factions and cliques formed aligning themselves with the various Council members.

One significant disagreement arose regarding the question of presiding authority: “Was there ‘one man’ who ruled the PRIESTHOOD (and the ‘group’) or did the entire Priesthood Council preside?”  Council members were split regarding the answer.  The “One Man Doctrine” taught that in accordance with D&C 132: 7, 18, 19, only “one [man] on earth at a time” holds the priesthood keys and that man is the Senior Member of the Priesthood Council.  Accordingly, other members of the Council are essentially only “counselors” to him.  If the “one” man felt he did not need six other counselors, then he was under no obligation to call new Council members to replace those that died.  Proponents observed that apparently the Council of Friends contained only “one” member in early 1929.

The opposing view was that all members of the Council hold the priesthood keys together and the Senior Member presides over the group.  In support of this belief, adherents would quote from an uncanonized 1880 revelation to Wilford Woodruff given at a time when the Church was lead by the entire Quorum of the Twelve Apostles (after Brigham Young’s death but prior to the First Presidency’s reorganization).  The revelation states:  

“While my servant John Taylor is your President [of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles] I wish to ask the rest of my servants of the Apostles the question.  Although you have one to Preside over your Quorum and over the Church which is the order of God in all generations  Do you not all of you hold the Apostleship which is the highest authority ever given to man on the earth  You do. Therefore you hold in Common the keys in all the world you each of you have power to unlock the vail of Eternity and hold converts with God the Father and his son Jesus Christ and to have the Administration of Angels. It is your right privilege & duty to inquire of the Lord his mind & will concerning yourselves the inhabitants of Zion and their interest  And whenever any one of you receive the word of the Lord  Let it be written and Presented in your Council and whatever by a united council you deem wisdom to be presented unto the people let it be presented by the President ...”[37] 

Also contradicting the “One Man Doctrine” were Lorin Woolley’s teachings that the Council of Friends consistently contained seven members throughout the nineteenth century.  Lorin often referred to the Council, not simply as the Council of Friends, but as “the Seven,”[38] which number Woolley (re)established in the early 1930s.  According to Lorin, the unanimous vote of all Council members was required for important decisions.[39]

By the 1960s Leroy Johnson was acknowledged to be that “one” man by most residents of Colorado City, although he was careful in his teachings saying, “You have heard other men call me a prophet, but you have never heard me make the claim.”[40]  But on another occasion he acknowledged his lofty calling: “I realize that the Lord has placed upon my shoulders a work similar to that of Enoch, to gather a people together and teach them the principles of salvation, and to tutor them in a way that they can be used in the redemption of Zion.”[41]  He also observed: “Only one man at a time holds the keys and power of the sealing power, and those who act during his administration are only acting under a delegated authority.”[42]  “I am only standing in the place that Joseph stood in B head of the Priesthood.”[43]

By 1979, two of the old Council had passed away, Carl Holm on 27 April 1972[44] and Richard Jessop on 23 October 1978.  Leroy Johnson believed in the “One Man Doctrine,” but was himself severely ill with a case of the shingles.  In almost constant pain, he seldom left home or participated in fundamentalist meetings. 

Rulon Jeffs remained the solo voice in favor of the “One Man Doctrine.”  Jeffs referred to President Johnson as “the key-holder and the mouth-piece of God”[45] and taught:  “President Johnson stands in the same position to the people of Zion in this day as Joseph did in that, and we are to have those ministrations done through the keys and power conferred upon him by the Lord God.  It has been the same through Joseph Smith’s legal successors from his day until the present.”[46]  The “One Man Doctrine” also received significant support from the sons of John Y. Barlow who were leaders in the community, Dan Barlow as Mayor of Colorado City and Sam Barlow as Deputy Sheriff.[47] 

Since Leroy Johnson was Senior Member of the Priesthood Council, he was responsible for recommending new replacements so that the Council might be perpetuated.  However, after Holm’s and Jessop’s deaths, he followed his belief in the “One Man Doctrine” and made no recommendations for new members.

Those who opposed the “One Man Doctrine” were junior Council members, Marion Hammon, Guy Musser and Alma Timpson.  Hammon left Short Creek in 1972 to pursue personal interests, but returned in 1976.  The last Priesthood Council meeting attended by all five members occurred in 1979.  At that time, three opposed the “One Man Doctrine” while two upheld it.  Guy Musser died 11 July 1983 leaving the Council evenly split.  The rift between Council members widened and attempts were made to evict residents siding with Hammon and Timpson from their properties owned by the UEP.

By February of 1984 Johnson’s health improved enough for him to speak to his fundamentalist followers.  He addressed the division directly: “I was struck down in the early part of 1979 [with shingles]....  I want to say a few words to these men who sit here on the stand today.  (He turned to face J. Marion Hammon and Alma A. Timpson.)  The Lord gave you men five and a half years to change your thinking on this principle of having one man holding the sealing powers in the earth at a time, and you have made a miserable mess of it by coming here and preaching over this pulpit that I was about to die because of my attitude towards this principle.”[48]  Then he vented: “For about three and a half years, neither I nor Brother Rulon Jeffs were allowed to speak to the people.  Why?  Because I was stricken down and I couldn’t speak, but I am speaking today.  They would not allow Brother Jeffs to speak because he sustained me.”[49] 

Six days later, he declared: “I want to tell you, the first thing that is going to take place is the cleaning up of the Priesthood Council.  I want to tell these men on the stand B Brother J. Marion Hammon, and Brother Alma Adelbert Timpson, that from now on, I am throwing you off my back, and I am not going to carry you any more.”[50]  They were dismissed as members of the Priesthood Council.

The following year Rulon Jeffs encouraged his listeners to “have an oath and covenant with the keyholder of [the] priesthood, Leroy S. Johnson, to obey him in all things, because he holds the keys and is the mouthpiece of God.  And he is God over us.”[51]  Strict discipline was required of all “group” members.  At one 1985 meeting, Johnson announced: “From now on, sentinels will stand at the door, and men and boys with long hair will have to go home and have a haircut before they can come into meeting.”[52]

Leroy Johnson did not live to see the completion of the building that would bear his name.  Described as “an unassuming yet charismatic man who held the reins and the hearts of the people” in Short Creek, Johnson passed away 25 November 1986.[53]  Truman Barlow, son of John Y. Barlow, spoke at the funeral stating: “I promise you that there will come a day when every single person in this room, and I say it tenderly, whether you believe it or not, will have to have the stamp of approval of Uncle Roy, or your life in the hereafter will stop.”[54]

Leroy Johnson’s death surprised many FLDS members.  He “had told people that he was going to live until Christ’s return at His Second Coming, that he would be here to turn the ‘Keys of Priesthood back to Him.’  He had set the date of this event to be in the year 1998,” but was apparently mistaken.[55]

With Uncle Roy’s passing, Marion Hammon was left as the Senior Member of the Priesthood Council that had been called by John Y. Barlow.  However, due to his dismissal from the Council in 1983 (along with Alma Timpson), Rulon Jeffs alone remained to lead the First Warders and to oversee the UEP.  Immediately Jeffs was revered as the “President of the Priesthood” and “Prophet, seer and revelator” to most of the fundamentalists in Colorado City.[56]  Rulon retained Johnson’s two counselors, Bishop Fred Jessop and Parley Harker,[57] but when asked about the “Priesthood Council” in 1989, Rulon simply replied, “I am it.”[58]  Reportedly, he once referred to the Council as a “seven-headed monster.”[59]

Being responsible for the temporal needs of the members of the UEP, Bishop Fred Jessop encouraged anyone who was eligible to take advantage of government assistance in the form of welfare and the WIC (woman-infant-child) programs.  Reportedly in 2003, “thirty-three percent of the town’s residents receive food stamps B compared to the state average of 4.7 percent” resulting in more than $6 million a year in public funds being funneled into the community of Colorado City, Arizona.[60]  Controversial author Jon Krakaur wrote: “Fundamentalists call defrauding the government ‘bleeding the beast’ and regard it as a virtuous act.”[61]

Leroy Johnson’s taught: “We are not trying to set up another church or to set the Church in order.”[62] However, in response to a disagreement with members of the UEP, the Johnson/Jeffs group (the “First Ward”) officially registered their religious organization, calling themelves “The Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints” (note the lack of a hyphen in Latter-Day and the capitalization of “Day”) or FLDS Church in 1991 with Jeffs as President.[63]

 

                    


[1]    .  Morris Q. Kunz, Reminiscences on Priesthood, 23-24.  See also Kelsch, Louis Alma Kelsch, 44.

[2]  Arnold Boss Prison Diaries, 11 August 1946.

[3]    .  For a brief biography of Leroy Johnson see: Driggs, “Fundamentalist Attitudes,” 42-45.

[4]    .  LSJ Sermons 4:1370.

[5]    .  Leroy Johnson related on 7 February 1971:  

I was forty-eight years old [incorrect?] before I met Brother Barlow. I had already seen some of my brothers enter into the law of plural marriage.  I thought it was my privilege as well as anybody else’s to enter into it.  So, I tried to convert young women to the proposition that I ought to have another wife.  I could convert them, but I couldn’t convert them to the proposition of going through with the marriage.  So, I had many disappointments.

When I met up with President Barlow and told him what I had done, I said, “I have never been able to enter into the law.  Now, why is it?” He said, “Well, my boy, you got off on the wrong foot.” Well, I had read the scriptures, and I thought that all who believed that law had the right to enter into plural marriage.  He said, “What is plural marriage?” I said, “Well, the book tells me that it is a law of the Holy Priesthood.”  “That’s right,” he said, “then if it is a law of the Holy Priesthood, it should be under the direction of the Priesthood, shouldn’t it?” I said, “Yes.”  “All right, who told you to go and get another wife?” He said, “If you were going to be advanced in the Priesthood, being advanced from an elder to a high priest or a seventy, would you go to the President of the Stake and tell him you were prepared now to be advanced, and you would like to have him ordain you to a higher office?” I said, “No.  I have never been taught that way.  I was taught that if I was an elder, I should remain an elder until I was called to be advanced.”  “All right,” he said, “it is no different than the law of Celestial Marriage.”

So, here is where I began to be taught the true order of the Priesthood.  A little later, I met Brother Joseph Musser. I was talking to him one day when he said, “Roy, how many times have you tried to get into plural marriage?  How many women have you asked?” I said, “That many, Brother Musser. They all turned me down.”  He said, “Well, I will promise you this, Brother Johnson, you won’t have to go out and solicit them from now on.  They will come to you.”  “fter I turned fifty years old, then I began to be added upon.  (LSJ Sermons 1:252.) 

See also interesting details related in 6:343-45.

[6]    .  LSJ Sermons 4:1243-44.

[7]    .  Ibid., 2:632.  It is not clear what “book” he was referring to.

[8]    .  Bistline, History of Colorado City, 18.

[9]    .  Ibid., 6:376.  See also 1:265-66.

[10]    .  Ibid., 1:300.

[11]    .  Ibid., 3:1022

[12]    .  Ibid., 1:145.  Discourse given 11 January 1970.

[13]    . In the seven volume LSJ Sermons, Leroy Johnson mentioned this admonition at least thirty-four times (1:160; 2: 467, 477, 507, 597, 658, 673, 679, 686, 713, 738, 741, 776; 3:805, 811, 888, 1136, 1193, 1195, 1204, 1210; 4:1241, 1424, 1454, 1486, 1488, 1503, 1547, 1551, 1580, 1600; 5:61, 381; 6:413).

[14]    .  Ibid., 6:263.

[15]    .  Ibid., 1:266.

[16]    .  Ibid., 6:69.

[17]    .  Ibid., 7:83.

[18]    .  Ibid., 5:58.

[19]    .  Ibid., 4:1524.  See also 6:49-50 and Barlow’s comments cited in 4:1490.

[20]    .  Ibid., 1:178.

[21]    .  Ibid., 5:309. 

[22]    .  Ibid., 3:1217.

[23]    .  Ibid., 4:1594.

[24]    .  Ibid., 4:1597.

[25]    .  Ibid., 5:266.

[26]    .  Ibid., 7:432.

[27]    .  Ibid., 4:1479.  See also 4:1482, 1567.

[28]    .  Ibid., 4:1616.  He referred to themselves as “the Fundamentalist group of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints” in 2:693.

[29]    .  Ibid., 7:394.

[30]    .  Ibid., 2:538-39.

[31]    .  Ibid., 2:616.  He further intimated that Church members are “ungodly.”  See 2:721.

[32]    .  Ibid., 4:1339.

[33]    .  Ibid., 4:1575-76.

[34]    .  Ibid., 4:1396.

[35]    .  Ibid., 4:1377.

[36]    .  Ibid., 4:1355.

[37]  Willford Woodruff Journal, 26 January 1880; Musser, Four Hidden Revelations, 3-11; italics added.  Rulon Jeffs, supported of the “One Man Doctrine teaching: “Wilford Woodruff had no authority nor power to receive and write that revelation... So what follows is received illegitimately and from below...  I know, as I know I live, brothers and sisters, that this Council does not hold the keys in common...”  (LSJ Sermons 7:306.  See also 6:408-10,7:466-68.)

[38]  BOR 47-48, 53, 64, 65, 70.

[39]  For example, in choosing new members of the Council, Lorin taught: “A person is first chosen by the Council in heaven and then a messenger comes here to reveal the man chosen to the President of Priesthood.  Then the Priesthood Council here votes on him and the results are taken back to the Priesthood Council in heaven, who call the man by revelation through the President of Priesthood.”  In Zitting, Charles F. Zitting, 62, (written in 1946 - see page 82).  See also  Morris Q. Kunz, Reminiscences on Priesthood, 22-23. 

[40]    .  Sermon given in 1980 recorded by Benjamin Bistline. Bistline, History of Colorado City, 102.

[41]    .  LSJ Sermons, 7:390.  See also notes from a meeting held 5 August 1962 in Hilton, “Polygamy in Utah Since the Manifesto,” 53.

[42]    .  LSJ Sermons 7:352.

[43]  Ibid., 4:1732.

[44]    .  LSJ Sermons 2:462-67.

[45]    .  Ibid., 7:272.

[46]    .  Ibid., 7:304.

[47]    .  Sam Barlow’s services as deputy sheriff were defended by Leroy Johnson in April 1970: “You young men, you should be ashamed of yourselves to do anything in this community to cause the Priesthood to call you to order or to cause Sam Barlow, our peace officer, to stop you on the highway and tell you to drive a little more peaceable.  When you are stopped, you should never hold a feeling in your heart that Sam Barlow is trying to put something over you and cause him to have to give you a ticket to appear before a judge.  It is the most disgraceful thing that I know of from this community...  You ought to be ashamed of yourselves.  You are not only doing an injustice to yourself and the driver of the car, but you are doing an injustice to this Priesthood.  We call on these boys sometimes to get up and bear their testimonies.  They bear testimony that these men hold the keys of the Priesthood.  Then they go out and do things like this.”  (Ibid., 1:169.)

[48]    .  Ibid., 7: 351.

[49]    .  Ibid., 7: 352.

[50]    .  Ibid., 7: 355-56.

[51]    .  Priesthood Articles, 348.  Discourse given 16 February 1985.

[52]    .  LSJ Sermons 7:452.

[53]    .  Mackert, Sixth of Seven Wives, 4; Bitton, “Polygamist Leader Passes On,” 48.

[54]    .  LSJ Sermons 7:494.

[55]  Bistline, Colorado City Polygamists, 154.

[56]    .  Jeffs, “Deposition 4-5 April 1989,”  15.

[57]    . Ibid., 18.

[58]    .  Ibid., 89.

[59]    .  Zoellner, “Rulon Jeffs.”

[60]    .  Jon Krakauer, Under the Banner, 12-13.  In 1993, one Utah State Department of Social Services employee estimated that through her office, “300 polygamous families receive from between $500 and $1600 worth of food stamps each month for families with an average of 15 members.”  She further explained: “The attitude of some polygamists is ‘the government is untrustworthy and corrupt, and I’m above it B but give me those food stamps and free medical care.’“ (Carolyn Campbell, “Inside Polygamy in the ‘90s,” 102.)  For scriptural commentary see D&C 75:28, 1 Tim. 5:8.

[61]    .  Krakauer, Under the Banner, 13.  See also Chynoweth, Blood Covenant, 46-47; Melissa Merrill, Polygamist’s Wife, 64; Daynes, More Wives Than One, 210-11.

[62]    .  “We are not trying to set up another church or to set the Church in order, but we are trying to prepare a people that the Lord can use to set His House in order when the one mighty and strong shall come.”  LSJ Sermons 1:65.

[63]    .  Quinn, “Plural Marriage,” 1998, 14, fn. 41.  Jeffs taught that the FLDS Church had been known as the “Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints... for at least 40 years.”  (“Deposition 4-5 April 1989,” 15.)